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Peer-Reviewed Studies

The Thornton Adjustable Positioner, or TAP®, is the driving innovation behind TAP Sleep Care™. TAP devices are the most researched oral appliances on the market with more than 30 independent peer reviewed published studies and counting.

In fact, since 1997 all clinical trials involving the TAP have been conducted by independent investigators who do not have a financial interest in the device. Each study was funded by an outside source and not by Airway Management.



Venema, Julia A. M. Uniken, Et al.  Long-Term Obstructive Sleep Apnea Therapy: A 10-year Follow Up of Mandibular Advancement Device and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.  Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 15 March 2020 


Kanti V., Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a patient with orofacial pain secondary to cervical fixation. JADA 148 (3), 185-189


Kent D., Rogers R., Loose R., Drug Induced Sedation Endoscopy in the Evaluation of OSA Patients with incomplete Oral Appliance Therapy Response. Sleep Rev 2015 (5) 18-21

Sanders AE, Denbar MA, White J, Prehn RS, Rogers RR, Pardue T, et al. Dental clinicians’ observations of combination therapy in PAP-intolerant patients. Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery. Vol 153 (2): 302-307

Prehn R., Colquitt T.  Fabrication technique for a custom face mask for the treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 



Boota A. White JR, Pardue T, Essick G. Sustained tolerance of CPAP using MAS supported Nasal Pillows. Abstract. 26th Annual APSS Meeting, Boston, MA

Bender S. Oral Appliance Therapy for Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders. In: Elsevier, Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology, (2012) 23, 72-78


White JR, Boota A, Essick G. Efficacy and Tolerance of Combination Therapy using MAS Supported Nasal Pillows.  At: American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine Annual Meeting. (Awarded: Poster, Abstract of the Year), Minneapolis, MN 2011

Lettieri CJ, Paolino N, Eliasson AH, Shah AA, Holley, AB. Comparison of Adjustable and Fixed Oral Appliances for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. In: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, JCSM, October 2011


Bishop B, Verrett R, Girvan T, Ingmundson P. Crossover Study Comparing Two Oral Appliance Designs for Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.At: American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine Annual Meeting. San Antonio, TX; 2010

Chung JW, Enciso R, Levendowski DJ, Westbrook PR, Clark GT. Treatment outcomes of mandibular advancement devices in positional and nonpositional OSA patients. In: Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010 May; 109(5):724-31

McLornan P, Verrett R, Girvan T, Ingmundson P. Evaluation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients’ Oral Appliance Titration Protocols. At: The American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine Annual Meeting. San Antonio, TX; 2010


Ghazal A, Sorichter S, Jonas I, Rose EC. A randomized prospective long-term study of two oral appliances for sleep apnea treatment. In: J Sleep Res. 2009 Sep; 18(3):321-8

Krishnan, V., N. A. Collop, et al. An evaluation of a titration strategy for prescription of oral appliances for obstructive sleep apnea. In: Chest 2009 133(5): 1135-1141


Chung JW, Enciso R, Levendowski DJ, Westbrook PR, Clark GT. Investigation of positional and non-positional OSA: risk factors associated with apnea-hypopnea severity. In: Journal of Sleep Research, 2008

Ghazal A, Jonas IE, Rose EC. Dental side effects of mandibular advancement appliances – a 2 year follow-up. In: J Orofac Orthop. 2008 Nov; 69(6):437-47

Hoekema, A., B. Stegenga, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy. In: Journal of Dental Research, 2008 87(9): 882-887

Hoekema, A., A. A. Voors, et al. Effects of oral appliances and CPAP on the left ventricle and natriuretic peptides. In: Int J Cardiol 2008 128(2): 232-239


Hoekema A, Doff MHJ, Bont LGMd, Hoeven JHvd, Wijkstra PJ, Pasma HR, et al. Predictors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Treatment Outcome.In: J Dent Res 2007; 86(12):1181-1186


Hoekema A, Stegenga B, Bakker M, Brouwer WH, Bont LGMd, Wijkstra PJ, et al. Simulated driving in obstructive sleep apnea – hypopnoea; effects of oral appliances and continuous positive airway pressure. In: Sleep and Breathing 2007; 11(3):129-138


Hoekema A, Stel A-L, Stegenga B, Hoeven JHvd, Wijkstra PJ, Driel MFv, et al. Sexual Function and Obstructive Sleep Apnea – Hypopnea: A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating the Effects of Oral-Appliance and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy. In: The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2007; 4(4ii):1153-1162


Hoekema A, Vries Fd, Heydenrijk K, Stegenga B. Implant-retained oral appliances: a novel treatment for edentulous patients with obstructive sleep apnea – hypopnea syndrome. In: Clinical Oral Implants Research 2007; 18(3):383-387


Levendowski DJ, Morgan TD, Patrickus JE, Westbrook PR, Berka C, Zavora T, et al. In-home evaluation of efficacy and titration of a mandibular advancement device for obstructive sleep apnea. In: Sleep Breath 2007; 11(3):139-47

Stouder, Jones, Brietzke, Mair. Does an oral appliance reduce palatal flutter and tongue base snoring? In: Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 2007;136(5):827-831


*Barnes M, McEvoy RD, Banks S et al. Efficacy of Positive Airway Pressure and Oral Appliance in Mild to Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea. In: Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; 170:656-664

Conaway JR, Scherr SC. Multidisciplinary Management of the Airway in a Trauma-Induced Brain Injury Patient. In: Sleep Breath 2004; 8(3):165-170

Rose EC, Germann M, Sorichter S, Jonas IE. Case Control Study in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing with a Mandibular Protrusive Appliance. In: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics 2004; 65(6):489-500


Skinner MA, Robertson CJ, Kingshott RN, Jones DR, Taylor DR. The efficacy of a mandibular advacement splint in relation to cephalometric variables. In: Sleep Breath 2002;6(3):115-24


Pancer J, Al-Faifi S, Al-Faifi M, Hoffstein V. Evaluation of Variable Mandibular Advancement Appliance for Treatment of Snoring and Sleep Apnea. In: Chest 1999; 116(6):1511-1518


Denbar M. Case report: Utilization of the Thornton Adjustable Positioner in maintaining the airway for a child with obstructive apnea, micrognathia, and cerebral palsy. In: Tex Dent J. 1998; 115(10):21-22

Roberts DH, Becker PM, Jamieson AO. Determining Efficacy of a Split Night OA & CPCP Titration Protocol Using PSG. In: Sleep 1998; 21(Supplement):97


* This appliance is a TAP-based design.